Stop Ocean Noise That Threatens Marine Life

We think of our oceans as a silent underwater world. In reality, the ocean is full of noise. Diving on any given day, anywhere in the world, you might hear fish chomping, waves crashing, mammals calling to each other and even rain falling. Sink a hydrophone in the ocean and discover a marine jungle of animal noises from the tiniest shrimp to the largest blue whale. Marine life depends on this soundscape for mating, finding food, navigation and avoiding predation.

Keith Ellenbogen's school of Bigeye Trevally

Keith Ellenbogen’s school of Bigeye Trevally

This ocean cacophony was all natural until the advent of the industrial revolution when human-made sounds from blasting, drilling, military, and shipping began drowning out these important biological cues.  To search for oil and gas, arrays of airguns are towed behind ships and release intense blasts of compressed air into the water–think about a dynamite explosion underwater every 10 seconds for days and sometimes months on end. Airgun noise can displace and confuse whales, dolphins and porpoises by interfering with their ability to communicate.

Recently, the Obama administration moved to prohibit lease sales for testing in the Mid and South Atlantic for 2017-22. That decision does not halt seismic permitting in the Atlantic. The federal government will likely propose opening up Atlantic waters for oil and gas exploration with airgun surveys, affecting many marine mammal species, including the endangered North Atlantic right whale. According to the Department of Interior’s own estimates, the proposed seismic airgun array blasting in the Atlantic could harm up to 138,00 whales and disrupt their behavior over 13 million times. Take action to stop ocean noise. Tell your elected officials that you do not want them to support seismic testing.

Use this template to email or mail your Senator to stop ocean noise.  Use this link, Find your Senator or Congresswoman/Congressman for the address.

If you live in Massachusetts:
Letter to MA Senator Markey

Letter to MA Senator Warren

Your voice matters!

Sink a hydrophone in the ocean and discover a marine jungle of animal noises from the tiniest shrimp to the largest blue whale. Marine life depends on this soundscape for mating, finding food, navigation and avoiding predation.

This ocean cacophony was all natural until the advent of the industrial revolution when human-made sounds from blasting, drilling, military, and shipping began drowning out these important biological cues. Imagine, if you will, not Rachel Carson’s famous silent spring, but the opposite. Imagine if there was so much human-made noise in the spring that it drowned out all of the birds’ calls. What would happen to those birds? For marine life, the intrusion of these sounds in the mix is the equivalent of being asked to wear a blindfold.

Photo courtesy of Ocean Matters

Photo courtesy of Ocean Matters

So what’s at stake for our world’s oceans and for us? Here are six amazing things about sound and marine life:

  1. About half of all fish species are estimated to emit sounds. These sounds help fish find spawning grounds and function like the call of a bird does, as specie specific signatures. By understanding and tracking these sounds, scientists can also identify important spawning grounds in the oceans, track numbers of individuals in a species, and by doing so more strategically protect these important spawning areas.
  1. Scientists have discovered that each whale population has its own “language,” which is understood only by individuals of the same population. For a population that migrates hundreds of miles of ocean basin from feeding to mating grounds, most whales depend on hearing these songs to find other individuals to accurately navigate.

Impeding this important whale communication by drowning in human-made sound has implications for fisheries. Recent science has found (perhaps counter-intuitively) that increasing the population of large whales might help to increase the number fish in the ocean.

  1. As the largest creature on Earth, blue whales can also boast of being the loudest. At 188 decibels, their loudest vocalizations can be heard a thousand miles away and is louder than a jet, which peaks at only 140 decibels. Humans can’t hear most of the blue whale’s song, however—it’s too low. They sing at frequencies between 10 and 40 Hz (the unit measurement of sound frequency) and infrasound under 20 Hz cannot be heard by humans. While other large whales are rebounding, blue whales do not appear to be. Blue whales number in only 1% of their historic population. Scientists speculate their lack of comeback is due to the wide scale disruption of the marine ecosystem in the Southern Hemisphere by the blue whales population’s decimation. Without blue whales, there had been a cascade of other marine life losses that has made for a severely altered environment, one that continues to be difficult for other marine life to survive and rebound
  1. Dolphins are thought to have an individual signature whistle, invented as a calf and kept throughout its life. They use these whistles to call to one another and seem to be able to remember the calls of other individuals for decades. No other species other than humans and dolphins has been shown to have this capacity.
  1. Noise has always been a driver of evolution and adaptation in the sea, providing “acoustical niches” inhabited by different species. Scientists speculate that the ocean was actually noisier in pre-whaling 1800, before the addition of human generated noise. This speaks volumes about the biomass of a “healthy” ocean pre-1800 as compared to now.
  1. There is no place to escape from the intrusion of human-made sounds in the ocean. Sounds from shipping were recently recorded at the very deepest part of the ocean: the Mariana Trench, at 10,000 meters under the sea.

Join us at Beeps, Rumbles, and Blasts: How Human-Generated Noise Threatens Marine Life on April 7th featuring Dr. Christopher Clark of Cornell University and Dr. Scott Kraus from the New England Aquarium. For a sneak preview hear Dr. Clark speak briefly about the importance of this topic in this beautiful and short NPR production

 

“[If] I’m a blue whale my heart beats once a minute. My ‘metronome’ is completely different from yours. And yet I, as human observer, am expecting their communication to be somehow synchronized with mine? Whales have their own listening culture. It will take a long time to begin to understand it.” – Dr. Christopher Clark

 

Blog contributor Laura Parker Roerden is Executive Director of Ocean Matters and is on the board of Women Working for Oceans.

 

On April 7th, W2O, along with the New England Aquarium will present Beeps, Rumbles, and Blasts: How Human -Generated Noise Threaten Marine Life. Scientists Chris Clark and Scott Krauss will educate us about how shipping, seismic testing and other human generated noise create a cacophony of sound drowning out the voice of whales, dolphins and all marine life communicating to each other during feeding, migration, breeding, and while detecting predators.

Beeps ok?

FullSizeRenderA very nice man, Dr. Stan Szyfelbein (pronounced Shi-fell-bine) told me today that when he shops here and in his native Poland, he uses all different sorts of reusable bags. His favorite is what he calls a “siatka.” Siatka is Polish for “anything that has the appearance of a net.” Stan, a wise man of 81, and retired Chief of Anesthesia at Shriners Hospital here in Boston says “Bags need to be functional and fashionable. Every man and woman use to carry a siatka rolled up in their pocket when they went shopping.”

The cotton siatka (or today’s string bag) is durable, washes easily and can be very beautiful too. Here are some wonderful examples of siatkas to add to your repertoire of reusable bags. Nix the plastics! Good for you, good for our oceans.

Pinterest has bags to own and to make!

Pinterest has bags to own and to make!

Ecohip cotton string bag on amazon.com

Ecohip cotton string bag on amazon.com

 

 

 

www.estringbags.com.au

www.estringbags.com.au

FullSizeRender

Lilly Davidson from Libby

Photo: Libby Davidson

With all our worrying world issues, it’s hard to keep climate on our minds. New Years’ resolutions often include topics of health, happiness, wealth, safety and security. Of course, all of these are directly tied to the success of our planet and climate. A healthy planet gives us joy, feeds us, and provides us with our precious natural resources, which dictates economic stability.

Should we be more hopeful about the future of our climate in 2016? Books will be written about whether or not the Paris21 Climate talks will lead to real action for curbing human emissions that contribute to climate change. Arguments will ensue about whether or not we are doing enough, quickly enough, to make an impact. Some will move on in hopes that others will continue the discussion and come up with the answers. But 2016 will be an important climate year and W2O will be encouraging you to stay hopeful and act.

Hashtags are not enough. Sometimes you have to write a letter or make a call to get someone’s attention.  W2O often asks its members and event attendees to write or call their elected government officials to encourage the passing of legislation that protects our oceans. Does it make a difference? According to legislative aids at the Massachusetts State House: Yes! Letters and calls keep topics on the minds of legislators encouraging research that contributes to the process of pushing a bill through to success.

More tips for your action on climate in 2016:

We are often asked, “What can I do?” Here are some tips from the New England Aquarium and the New York Times on how you can help curb carbon emissions:

  • Eat vegetables and cut down on intake of meat and dairy. The production of meat and dairy is carbon intensive.
  • Take the bus, ride a bike or walk.  If you drive to work alone, your commuting eats up more than your entire carbon budget for the year. 
  • Shop wisely, avoid waste.  Wasted food adds to the total amount of the food that is produced.  A large portion of wasted food ends up in landfills and, as it decomposes, adds methane to the atmosphere.
  • Fly less, drive less. Take the train or bus. If you do fly, avoid first class.  On average, a first class seat is two and a half times more detrimental to the environment than coach because it takes up more room resulting in more flights.
  • Reduce your mileage input by driving the speed limit. Tune your engine, keep tires inflated and avoid buying that third car.
  • Buy less stuff; waste less stuff.  Each thing that you recycle is one fewer thing that has to be produced.
  • Advocate public policies that develop clean energy and efficient transportation.  Vote with the oceans in mind.

Good for you. Good for our oceans.

 

Barb uses paper bags and gifts of her garden to wrap her holiday presents!

Barb reuses paper bags and gifts of her garden to wrap her holiday presents!

A Holiday message from W2O Chair Barbara Burgess

“I have such deep respect and appreciation for our world’s oceans.  It brings my family and me joy and peace.  And when I think about the millions and millions of mouths that the oceans feed I am filled with gratitude.  As a mother, it feels natural to protect what I love.  So when I think about the holiday season and gift giving it simply feels right to give a gift that says,”Together we will save our great blue planet!”  All of us at W2O would like to share these fun gift ideas with you and hope they may spark action and conversation this Holiday season.”

Yours in the spirit of a healthy planet,
Barbara

Your choices make a difference—whether it’s a fun outing, a gift for a child or ocean lover or, the recipes you cook at your home!

Get on board!
Upcycle plastic pollution in our oceans; the Bureo skateboard is made of recycled fishing nets gathered off the Chilean coastline.
http://neaq.ordercompletion.com/a556/minnow-complete-cruiser-skateboard.html

Surprise someone with an Animal Encounter!
Give a memorable experience and also provide vital support to the New England Aquarium’s conservation and research mission.
http://www.neaq.org/visit_planning/tours_and_programs/programs/index.php

Live life with less polluting plastic!
We all love our yogurt but hate using all those plastic containers. Make your own yogurt (easy!) save money and nix the plastic! http://www.amazon.com/Euro-Cuisine-YM80-Yogurt-

Eat sustainable fish!
This cookbook, by W2O friend author and chef, Barton Seaver, provides simple, delicious, sustainable recipes that are good for the planet.
http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/for-cod-and-country-barton-seaver/1101074324

Learn about protecting sea turtles!
Each purchase of Liz Cunningham’s book, Ocean Country, creates a donation of 21% of the book’s royalties for the New England Aquarium’s Marine Conservation Action Fund. MCAF is a unique and effective micro-funding program that protects and promotes ocean animals and habitats.
http://lizcunningham.net/ocean_country_the_book/

Think big!
Give a North Atlantic right whale sponsorship. With fewer than 600 North Atlantic right whales alive today, New England Aquarium researchers are working tirelessly to study and protect this critically endangered species.
http://www.neaq.org/membership_and_giving/individual_donations/animal_sponsorship/right_whale_sponsorship.php

Build Awareness!
The beautiful Nurdle in the Rough jewelry was created with the goal of building awareness about plastic pollution. Each piece is carefully crafted from found plastic near artist Kathleen Crabill’s home in Hawaii. 10% of the proceeds is donated to ocean conservation efforts. http://www.nurdleintherough.com

 

From Nurdle in the Rough

From Nurdle in the Rough

 

 

W2O and the Massachusetts Sierra Club hosted Heroes of the Oceans at the MA State House last week, honoring those that have helped pass bills banning single use plastic pollution in their towns and cities.

Educating about refusing single use plastic is not enough. The real heroes are those that take up the challenge in their communities and enacting lasting change through legislation. Mindful change matters, but those changes that spark local, city and statewide initiatives, that is what its all about.

Plastic pollution clogs our drains, litters our parks, destroys our oceans and then ends up in us. The plastic ends up in us.

Our Heroes of the Oceans made endless phone calls, spent hours explaining the damage that single use plastic does to our environment, oceans and families, and convinced town chamber, town meeting members, selectman and legislators that now is the time to act and ban single use plastic in our communities. It is hard work getting that done.

 

Best Honorees

The “Heroes” with legislators on the grand staircase at the MA State House (photo: Gretchen Powers)

Join us to celebrate the real heroes of the ocean! Across the country it is the towns and municipalities that have stepped up to the plate, done the dirty work and pushed for action to ban single-use plastic pollution. Massachusetts has 18 towns that have bans on plastic bags, bottles and polystyrene and on November 12, along with the Massachusetts Sierra Club and the office of Rep. Lori Ehrlich, Women Working for Oceans will host Heroes of the Ocean  to honor their hard work. This event is FREE and open to the public.

image001

ActionforRisingFall

BE PREPARED!!!
MAKING AND MAINTAINING A HOME EMERGENCY KIT:

http://www.ready.gov/kit
http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1390846764394-dc08e309debe561d866b05ac84daf1ee/checklist_2014.pdf

Kits for purchase:
Www.emergencykits.com
WWW.emergencygobags.com
Www.rei.com
http://www.redcrossstore.org/default.aspx

BE EDUCATED!!!
WATCH A TED TALK AND LEARN MORE
Oceanographer John Englander: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TH8Q8Ki9fCA  and important information from NASA: http://www.nasa.gov/goddard/risingseas

TAKE ACTION!!!
HAVE AN HOME ENERGY AUDIT
http://energy.gov/energysaver/professional-home-energy-audits
http://www.resnet.us/directory/search


 

Photo by Noelle Anderson

Photo by Noelle Anderson

Is sea level rise something we need to be concerned about right now? If you look at the data from the Union of Concerned Scientists, it seems far off somehow yet, we are seeing the water rise and cities and towns are talking about mitigation to protect vulnerable property. So what is going on? What action can we take?

Sea level rise, caused by human induced climate change, amplifies the effects of tidal height and storm surge associated with all coastal storms. A storm doesn’t need to be “super” to cause significant damage. Most people remember Hurricane Sandy. The iconic images of the massive storm taken by satellite; the bent and twisted frame of the drowned roller coaster sitting placidly in the surf just off the Jersey Shore; the flooded tunnels of the New York City subway system and lower Manhattan are hard to forget. Similarly, we shudder at the memory of New Orleans residents clinging to their roofs awaiting rescue by helicopters during Hurricane Katrina. Yet, we also tend to dismiss such happenings as anomalies. We call them “super storms “ or “100-year storms” and unless we were directly impacted, go on with our lives.

Because of warming seas from human induced climate change, scientists warn that 100-year storms are becoming more frequent. Coastal flood advisories and flood watches due to “astronomical tides” were in effect recently in locations from Key West to Maine, including Boston, Baltimore, Washington, DC, and other cities in between. In the southern part of Florida, a third night of flooding closed roads, flooded sidewalks and led to some of the most extensive tidal flooding they’d ever witnessed. Charlestown has seen consecutive days with road closure due to flooding and lives were lost due to rising waters. Last month’s king tide saw alligators swimming in flooded streets.

One constant piece of this phenomenon, the monthly ebb & flow of the tide, is just doing what it does, albeit with an extra kick when there is a king tide. With sea level rise, the highest tides are only getting higher, due to the thermal expansion caused by the increasing warm air and water and the flooding they bring is getting more frequent. Regardless of whether you live along the coast or in the nation’s heartland, the impact will be both economic and geographic.

Many of our most populous metropolitan areas are located where the ocean meets the land. In fact more than 100 million people live in coastal counties. These counties produce 42 percent of the US economy’s GDP. Besides being financial, military and government centers, these areas are home to the largest ports in our country. A quick glance at the list of the top five ports in the continental US, illustrates the vulnerabilities. They are located in Louisiana, Texas, New York/New Jersey, and account for billions of metric tons in movement of goods, both exports and imports, annually. In the past decade, each one has been impacted by a significant meteorological event, either Sandy or Katrina, and is located in a low-lying area impacted by tidal flooding and sea level rise.

When storms arrive, airports, cargo ports and financial centers close halting the movement of goods and people, slowing the economy and impacting people’s livelihoods. When land is washed away or homes and businesses are destroyed by floodwater, people’s life savings are threatened; they may be left homeless and jobless. These impacts will be more frequent as sea levels rise and storms become stronger.

What can we as ordinary citizens do to help prepare and protect our family, communities, and our society for sea level rise?

  • Be educated. By learning all that we can about climate change and sea level rise, we can support efforts to stem the tide.
  • Be prepared. Make sure our families are ready for a big storm by having a plan and the necessary items on hand to make sure we stay safe.
  • Be inspired to take action. Support legislation that demands action on climate change and reduce your own carbon footprint. Having a home energy audit is a great place to start!

Join us for Boston Waters Rising on October 29th and learn more!

Today’s blog contributor is W2O board member Dianne Brown

Terms Defined

Storm Surge occurs when the winds from coastal storms push water inland. It occurs at all tide levels, but causes the most damage at high tides and king tides. In other words, the higher the water level at the time of the surge, the more water will be pushed inland, resulting in greater flooding. The greater the flooding, the longer it will last, simply because the water will take longer to drain away. The longer the flooding lasts the more human suffering and economic damage it will inflict.

A King Tide The height of a tide is controlled by the gravitational pull of the moon on the earth, which varies during the month, as the moon waxes and wanes. The tide is highest when we have a full moon or a new moon. A king tide occurs several times during the year when the moon’s elliptical orbit brings it closest to the Earth at the same time the Earth’s elliptical orbit brings it closest to the sun.

Sea Level Rise is an increase in the level of our oceans, relative to the land. It is generally measured in three ways: satellite data, tide gauges, and land benchmarks. Sea level rise is occurring because of two phenomena – the absorption of additional heat in our atmosphere by the ocean and the melting of land ice (glaciers & ice sheets). Although scientific estimates vary about the amount of sea level rise we will experience, due to uncertain rates of land ice melt, climate scientists all agree that globally seas have risen an average of 8 inches since 1880 and that they will continue to rise from their present level.